Jeep Grand Cherokee

1993-1999 of release

Repair and car operation



Jeep Grandee Cheroki
+ Jeep Grand Cherokee brand Cars
+ Settings and routine maintenance
+ Ryadny six-cylinder engine
+ V8 Engine
+ Procedures of the general and major maintenance of the engine
+ Systems of cooling, heating and air conditioning
+ the Power supply system and production of the fulfilled gases
+ System of electric equipment of the engine
+ Systems of decrease in toxicity of the fulfilled gases and engine management
+ Manual box of gear shifting
+ Automatic transmission
+ Transfer case
+ Coupling and transmission line
+ Brake system
+ Suspension bracket and steering
+ Body
+ System of onboard electric equipment
- Governing bodies and operation receptions
   Acquaintance to the car
   Start of the engine and driving
   Dashboard and salon equipment
   Trailer towage
   Emergency towage of the car
   Car towage for the purpose of engine start
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Start of the engine and driving

Positions of the cylinder of the lock of ignition

At all do not turn the ignition key in the situation LOCK and take it from the lock to a full stop of the car. Blocking the helmsman of a column can lead to emergency creation! In case of need ignition switching off during movement turn a key in the situation OFF.

Do not nestle during engine start on a steering wheel - if forward wheels of the car of a wheel were left turned, the wheel can sharply move and injure hands or a thorax!

The cylinder of the lock of ignition by means of a key can will turn in one of five provisions (see an illustration).

Key turn in the situation LOCK blocks the switch of ignition and a steering column. On models to AT besides there is a blocking of the lever of the selector of transfers in situation P.

In the situation OFF there is an unblocking of a steering column and AT management. the engine thus remains not started.

The key should occupy the situation ON/RUN at the working engine.

For engine start by a starter the key should be turned in the situation START. As soon as start successfully to come to the end a key should be immediately released in the situation ON.

Key turn in situation ASS provides food giving on consumers of the electric power at the muffled engine.

Opening of a driver's door at the ignition key left in the lock leads to the inclusion of an alarm buzzer reminding to the driver of need to take out a key.

Blocking the helmsman of a column can prevent a povorachivaniye of a steering wheel and a key in the lock. For key release sharply pull a steering wheel in the same party where forward wheels of the car are turned, at the same time turning a key towards the situation OFF.

Engine start

General information

Normal start of the engine (cold or heated-up) should be made without squeezing of a pedal of gas. Turn the ignition key in the situation START after the engine will be started release. If within 10 seconds of start does not occur, turn a key in the situation OFF, wait about 5 seconds and repeat attempt.

If attempts to make start by usual way do not crown success, probably there was a carburetor flood. Squeeze out to a floor a pedal of gas and, holding her in this situation, turn the engine a starter - thus there should be a removal of excess of fuel.

In order to avoid failure of a starter do not turn them the engine continuously more than 15 seconds in a row. Pauses between attempts should make not less than 10 ÷ 15 seconds.

The filled-in engine can successfully be started, however will not develop full capacity, sufficient for continuation of its work at a key otpuskaniye. In that case continue attempts at completely squeezed out pedal of gas. After turns of the started engine are stabilized release a pedal of an accelerator and the ignition key.

If the engine is not started after a 15-second provorachivaniye by a starter at the squeezed-out pedal of gas, repeat attempt of normal start (see the item. "Normal start of the engine...").

Idling turns on the models equipped with system of multiitem injection of fuel are supervised automatically and will gradually decrease in process of engine warming up.

Avoid long single operation of the engine, especially on the raised turns - the excessive warming up of the fulfilled gases can lead to damage of the catalytic converter and other components of system of release. Do not leave the car with working engine without supervision.

Electric heater of the block (additional complete set)

Do not forget to switch off before a start of motion a heater cord from the socket, to wind and reliably to fix on a regular place in an impellent compartment!

Cooling liquid of the engine for the purpose of simplification of start of the last in cold weather allows to warm up a heater beforehand. The plug of a heater joins in standard 3-contact (with grounding) the socket of a variable network with tension of 110 ÷ 115 Century.

The cord of a heater winded in a bay on 6-cylinder engines is usually fixed on a tube of ventilation of a crater. On V8 engines the bay of a cord is fixed in clips on a fan casing near the tank of system of hydrostrengthening of a wheel.

Start of motion and driving

Management of a manual box of gear shifting

Do not forget before leaving parked (especially on an inclined site of the road) the car to cock the parking brake. Always leave RKPP on transfer (that does not mean lack of need for raising of the parking brake).


Do not move at all under a bias on neutral transfer and the more so do not switch off thus ignition as it is thus easy to run away and create an emergency on the road!

RKPP is equipped with the sensor switch of interruption of a chain of the starter, not allowing to make engine start at the pedal of coupling not squeezed out against the stop.

Before including transfer completely squeeze out a coupling pedal. Include the first transfer and slowly release couplings, at the same time squeezing out gas.

Gear shifting make strictly in ascending order, without jumping through one. Begin movement always with the first transfer. The scheme of provision of transfers is usually put on the handle of a control lever of RKPP. Casual inclusion instead of the first transfer of thirds at the moment of a start of motion can lead to coupling damage.

In the conditions of rather intense city cycle need for use of the highest transfers arises extremely seldom. The fifth transfer is intended for movement on the highway with high speed and does not allow to develop high acceleration. For inclusion of the fifth transfer submit the lever to the right against the stop, overcoming resistance of a spring, then push it forward. For return from the fifth transfer on the fourth pull the lever one movement on itself. There is no need sharply to move the lever to the left as thus by mistake it is possible to include instead of the fourth the second transfer that is fraught with box damage.

In order to avoid a premature exit of RKPP out of operation when driving it is necessary to observe some special rules:

  • Before being switched from forward transfer on back (or on the contrary) wait a full stop of the car. Premature inclusion of transfer is capable to lead to serious mechanical damages of a transmission.
  • Avoid movement with high speed on the bottom transfers. Such manner of driving can result in fast wear of a transmission and engine damages.
  • Try to switch transfers smoothly, without allowing a gnash. In order to avoid damage of the engine or transmission do not pass to lower transfer until speed of the car will not be dumped to acceptable value.
  • Try to clean completely a foot from a coupling pedal during movement or at operation of the engine on single turns. Such manner of driving is fraught with a premature exit of coupling out of operation as a result of an overheat.
  • Do not forget that movement with excessively low speed for the chosen transfer is fraught with an engine overheat.
  • At all do not use coupling for car keeping motionlessly on an inclined site of the road - coupling will quickly be past repair.
  • In order to avoid transmission damage at gear shifting completely squeeze out a coupling pedal.
  • In order to avoid damages of the transmission line try not to allow too fast provorachivaniye of wheels (more than 24 km/h (15 miles/h) in attempts to shift from a place the starting slipping car a switching way from forward transfer on back and back.

In instrument brushes of models with RKPP the special control lamp warning the driver at dispersal of the car about need of switching on transfer following one after another is built in.

Management of automatic transmission

At the AT lever not transferred to situation P the parked car is not insured from a skatyvaniye under a bias. Before leaving the car check reliability of fixing of the lever in situation P for what pull the lever forward-back without squeezing out the button on its handle. Do not forget to cock the parking brake also!

The index on the display panel of the selector of transfers informs the driver on the chosen situation AT. In a night-time the indicator is highlighted.
The lever of the selector of gear shifting with the display panel.

To begin movement the lever of the selector of transfers it is necessary to transfer from situation N to one of working provisions (1, 2, D, OD or R, depending on an objective). Press the button sideways on the handle and switch the lever in demanded situation. Do not force engine turns at AT conclusion from provisions P or N.

Situation P is intended for a car parking. Its inclusion is made for the purpose of blocking of the transmission supplementing operation of the parking brake оп to keeping of the car motionlessly. Situation P is one of two in whom engine start (the second - N) is possible. Being going to leave the car, do not forget to cock also the parking brake, and do it before transferring to situation P AT as differently its blokirator can appear under loading (if the car is parked on an inclined site of the road) and switching of the lever it will appear impossible.

By transfer of the lever of the selector to the situation R AT it is switched to a reverse gear (reverse). Inclusion of a reverse gear should be made only after a full stop of the car.

Situation N is intended for long parking of the car with working engine. The stopped engine also can be started in this position of the lever of the selector. If necessary to leave the car with the transmission established in situation N do not forget to cock the parking brake.

The situation OD designated on the indicator by a letter placed in a round frame D, is intended for movement in a city cycle and on the highway. Inclusion of the fourth (raising) transfer to AT is supervised by the electronic device. Machine translation of transmission from a mode D in the OD mode occurs under following conditions:

  • The lever of the selector is established in the situation OD.
  • Cooling liquid of the engine reaches normal working temperature (only the V8) model.
  • The temperature of ATF reaches normal working temperature (only 6-cylinder engines).
  • Speed of movement of the car exceeds value close to 48 km/h (30 miles/h).
  • Not заактивирован About/D OFF switch.

Blocking of the OD mode can be made by means of the About/D OFF switch located on the dashboard. Activation of the switch is accompanied by inclusion of the control lamp located directly over it. When the lamp burns, raising transfer is blocked. Repeated squeezing of the button of the switch Blocking of raising transfer restores the OD function should be made during towage of hard loaded trailer.
Location of the switch of blocking of a raising About/D OFF broadcast.

During slow movement in the conditions of an intense city cycle or on the dangerous mountain road it is reasonable to increase efficiency of return of the engine by AT switching in situation 2. Thus the set of forward transfers of transmission is limited the first to two. Use this mode also during long liftings and for car braking by the engine on descents. Watch that speed of movement of the car in a mode of 2 AT did not exceed value of 72 km/h (45 miles/h).

Situation 1 it is intended for selection from the engine of the maximum capacity during steep slopes or for braking by the engine on small speeds of movement (less than 40 km/h (25 miles/h)). In order to avoid excess of admissible turns of the engine do not disperse the car over the specified value of speed.

In order to avoid a premature exit of AT out of operation when driving it is necessary to observe some special rules:

  • Before deducing the lever of the selector of transfers from situation P unblock it (and a steering column), having turned the ignition key in the situation ON.
  • Do not force the engine at the involved brakes and the transmission included on transfer. Car keeping motionless on an inclined site of the road make only by means of brakes. The neglect performance of these conditions can lead to a premature exit of transmission out of operation as a result of an overheat.
  • In order to avoid damages of the transmission line try not to allow too fast provorachivaniye of wheels (more than 24 km/h (15 miles/h) in attempts to shift from a place the starting slipping car a switching way from forward transfer on back and back.

The electronic system constantly traces ATF temperature. If the temperature of transmission rises too highly, there is its automatic switching on the third transfer, being accompanied inclusion of a control lamp About/D OFF After ATF will cool down transmission comes back to a normal mode of functioning.

The design of AT provides additional possibility of economy of fuel consumption. Gearing of coupling with the converter of rotation occurs automatically on reaching the car of a certain speed limit. Thus there can be a little unusual feelings at normal functioning three on the highest transfer. When falling speed of the car, or during acceleration coupling automatically also is smoothly disconnected.

Use operative information on a condition of system of cooling

The careless performer can be easily strongly scalded by the steam escaping from a radiator. If from under a cowl steam escapes, or suspicious hissing is audible, do not open a cowl before complete cooling of system of cooling!

In the conditions of intense operation of the engine the system of cooling can test overloads. Such situation is most typical during long lifting uphill in hot weather, at a stop after a long trip, during long operation of the engine on single turns at hit in traffic jam, and also at trailer towage.

When the arrow of a measuring instrument of temperature of cooling liquid on an instrument guard comes into a red zone, or the control lamp of temperature joins, for example at car hit in a stopper, transfer transmission to neutral situation and switch off To/in if it was included.

When the arrow of a measuring instrument of temperature is in the top half of a scale of the indicator before suppressing the engine always let's to it work within not less than a minute on single turns.

If within a minute - two shooters of a measuring instrument the control lamp does not fall / does not die away, choose a safe place and park on it the car. Transfer the selector lever to situation P (AT) / choose neutral transfer (RKPP) and cock the parking brake. Do not suppress the engine and slightly lift its turns. Two-three minutes later again dump turns to the single.

If the temperature on the former did not fall, muffle the engine. Lift a cowl check on existence of leaks a radiator and all its hoses, including the perelivny. Check a condition of driving belts. If level of cooling liquid fell or the ventilyatorny belt failed, do not start the engine until the overheat reason will be eliminated. The temporary overheat of cooling liquid at a stop after a long trip with high speed of movement should not cause concern - about 10 minutes later the temperature should return to norm.

Principle of functioning of an electronic control system in the speed (темпостата)

Leaving темпостат included when need for it disappears dangerously! Unexpected operation of system after casual pressing of the button of a choice of cruiser speed can lead to loss of management and hit in an emergency! Without fail disconnect темпостат upon transition to manual control by speed.

At activation темпостата he assumes function of management by acceleration, supporting a constant the chosen cruiser speed of movement of the car. Use темпостата becomes possible only at speeds of movement over 60 km/h (35 miles/h). Management buttons the tempostaty are located on a steering wheel and provide operation of ON/OFF switches (Vkl/Vykl), RESUME/ACCEL (Return to chosen high-speed mode/acceleration) and SET/DECEL (Installation / with Deseleratsiya).
Management buttons tempostaty.

Activation of system is made by a single nazhimaniye on the ON/OFF switch button. Repeated squeezing of the button disconnects темпостат.

When need for system is absent, it should be disconnected.

Having dispersed till demanded speed (over 60 km/h), once press the SET/DECEL button. Now the pedal of gas can be released - темпостат will automatically support the chosen cruiser speed.

Easy squeezing of a pedal of gas, and also use of brakes or coupling lead to shutdown темпостат without cleaning of his memory. In order that memory of system appeared is cleared it is necessary to disconnect темпостат the ON/OFF button.

For return to chosen and brought memory темпостата cruiser speed on termination of the compelled acceleration or braking once press the RESUME/ACCEL button. Return can be made at any speed of movement of the car over 50 km/h (30 miles/h).

By means of the same switch cruiser speed can be increased. At included темпостате press the RESUME/ACCEL button and hold it pressed until new demanded value of speed will be reached. At a button otpuskaniye new cruiser speed will be the system written down in memory. The short nazhimaniye of the button leads to a gain of speed on 3.2 km/h (2 miles/h). So that to receive a gain in 9.6 km/h (6 miles/h) it is necessary to squeeze out the button three times shortly.

Decrease brought in memory темпостата cruiser value of speed is made by means of the SET/DECEL button. Hold the button pressed, desirable new value will not be reached yet.

To make overtaking on the operated tempostaty car simply squeeze out a gas pedal as do it in a usual situation. At a pedal otpuskaniye on termination of overtaking the car will return to chosen earlier cruiser speed.

During lifting uphill in height more than 650 m, and also at transportation of heavy cargoes (in particular by trailer towage) supported tempostaty cruiser speed of movement of the car can fall slightly below the established value. When lowering the actual speed below a mark of 50 km/h (30 miles/h) the system is automatically disconnected. In this case it is necessary to use a gas pedal for restoration of a demanded high-speed mode.

In the model described above a situation, equipped with 5-step RKPP should cope on the 4th transfer. 4-step AT can carry out to several switchings with the 4th on the 3rd transfer. and improvement of efficiency of return of the engine it is recommended to make blocking of a mode of raising transfer for decrease in frequency of switchings, having pressed the About/D OFF button.

At movement uphill or under a bias the car can lose or speed up respectively regardless of that is included темпостат or not. If the steepness of a slope allows the car to increase spontaneously speed, use a pedal of a foot brake. Thus there will be an automatic shutdown of a control system by speed and movement delay. On equipped RKPP models when the chosen transfer is not capable to support more actually taking place high-speed mode during lifting uphill, be switched to lower following one after another.

In order to avoid loss of control of management of the car do not use темпостат in the situations listed below:

  • When there is no physical possibility of movement with the constant chosen speed.
  • At movement on the slippery road.
  • In the conditions of brisk traffic, and also on "serpentine" of mountain roads.

Principle of functioning of a transfer case of all-wheel drive models

At all do not leave a transfer case of the parked car in neutral situation, previously without having cocked the parking brake! Thus both bridges of the car appear are disconnected from the transmission line and the car is not insured from a spontaneous skatyvaniye under a bias even at the transmission established on transfer.

Transfer case of QUADRA-TRAC system (additional complete set)

The system of switching of modes of a transfer case of 4WD models without possibility of shutdown of a full drive of QUADRA-TRAC provides three modes of its functioning - two workers and neutral.
Lever of a choice of modes of a transfer case of QUADRA-TRAC.

The mode of raising transfer of 4WD (4HI) is intended for usual use of the car in any road conditions.

Inclusion of a mode of lowering transfer of 4WD (4LO) allows to increase traction force developed by the engine at speed of movement not above 64 km/h (40 miles/h). For inclusion of a mode dump speed to value of 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 mile/h), switch transmission in neutral situation, then smoothly and quickly transfer the lever of a choice of modes of a transfer case to situation 4LO without a delay on neutral. At return of the lever to a 4HI mode also do not detain him in neutral situation.

At all do not make inclusion of a mode of lowering transfer of a transfer case and an exit from it at speed of movement of the car over 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/h)!

In neutral situation the system disconnects leading bridges of the car from the transmission line. In this situation car towage (should be made see. Section Dashboard and salon equipment).

The graphic display of information center of the car (see. The section Dashboard and the salon equipment) fixes the chosen mode of a transfer case. At a HI mode choice on the display all four wheels of an outline drawing of the car are highlighted. The LO mode is designated by a podsvechivaniye of four wheels, in a combination to LO inscription on the screen. The lamp can shortly blink at the moment of lever transfer from 4HI in 4LO, however when inclusion of a mode of lowering transfer is complete, it should burn continuously.

Incomplete switching of the lever of a choice of modes conducts to loss of capacity developed by the engine and possible damage of a transfer case. The probability of loss of control of driving is not excluded also. It is not necessary to begin movement without having made sure of unambiguity of inclusion of a transfer case!

Transfer case of SELEC-TRAC system (additional complete set)

Do not include a transfer case of SELEC-TRAC for a long time on an all-wheel drive mode at movement on a dry firm covering. For simplification of inclusion of all-wheel drive modes previously hand over the car on some meters the back, or curtail on a roadside with the loose covering providing possibility of pro-slipping of wheels.

The system of switching of modes of a transfer case of 4WD models with possibility of shutdown of a full drive of SELEC-TRAC provides five modes of its functioning: 2WD, 4х4 PART-TIME, 4х4 FULL-TIME, 4LO and neutral (N).
Lever of a choice of modes of a transfer case of SELEC-TRAC.

On the graphic display of information center (see. The section Dashboard and the salon equipment) is reflected the choice made by the driver. At 2WD mode inclusion on an outline drawing of the car only two back wheels are highlighted. In case of a choice of all-wheel drive modes all four wheels, plus PART-TIME inscription (Changeably included full drive) or FULL-TIME (Constantly included full drive) in case of raising 4WD modes, or LO are illuminated at a choice of a lowering 4LO mode. The neutral provision of a transfer case is not reflected in any way in the display.

The delay of inclusion of all-wheel drive modes can speak unevenness of wear of protectors, low pressure of a rating of tires, and also cold weather.


Incomplete switching of the lever of a choice of modes conducts to loss of capacity developed by the engine and possible damage of a transfer case. The probability of loss of control of driving is not excluded also. It is not necessary to begin movement without having made sure of unambiguity of inclusion of a transfer case!

The mode of raising transfer of 2WD is intended for movement on roads with a firm covering and provides maximum efficiency of fuel consumption.

Transfer of the lever to situation 4 x 4 PART-TIME provides inclusion of a full drive in a changeable mode when emergence on the road of snow drifts or ices demands increase of reliability of coupling with the road. The mode is raising and does not provide an increment of traction effort. At a choice of this mode forward and back bridges are mechanically blocked with each other and rotate with identical speed. It is not necessary to use a mode 4 x 4 PART-TIME at movement on a dry paving. Inclusion of a mode can be made under way at any resolved speed of movement of the car - simply transfer a control lever a box from situation 2WD to the provision of 4x4 PART-TIME.

Inclusion a mode of 4х4 FULL-TIME allows to increase course stability of the car at the expense of the best coupling with the road at movement on a wet, slippery or snow-covered paving. The mode also belongs to the raising. At its inclusion, unlike described above 4х4 PART-TIME, forward and back bridges rotate independently from each other that allows to increase maneuverability of the car considerably. Use of this mode is not forbidden in any road conditions. Transfer of a transfer case from situation 2WD in the provision of 4х4 FULL-TIME it can be carried out at any speed-limit of movement of the car. When translating a control lever of a box from situation 2WD in the provision of 4х4 FULL-TIME through 4х4 PART-TIME it can be necessary twice to release a gas pedal.

The mode of a full drive with fall of the transfer relation of 4LO joins in need of a temporary increment of traction effort of the car at movement on off road terrain with small speed.

It is not necessary to include a 4LO mode on roads with a good covering! To include a 4LO mode speed of the car it should be dumped to value of 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 mile/h), and transmission is transferred to neutral situation.


Do not try to make at all 4LO mode inclusion at speed of movement of the car over 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/h)! It can lead to an exit of a transfer case out of operation.

The neutral provision (N) of a transfer case is intended for emergency towage of the car (see the item. "In neutral situation...").

Transfer case of COMMAND-TRAC system (additional complete set)

The increase in a noise background of a transfer case at inclusion it in modes of a full drive should not cause concern.

The transfer case of COMMAND-TRAC system provides possibility of changeable use of a full drive. Thus forward and back bridges are mechanically blocked with each other and rotate with identical speed. The system provides possibility of inclusion of four operating modes of a box: 2WD, 4х4 PART-TIME, 4LO and neutral (N).
Lever of a choice of modes of a transfer case.

On the graphic display of information center of the car (see. The section Dashboard and the salon equipment) the chosen mode is displayed by illumination of wheels on an outline drawing of the car in a combination to an explanatory inscription of the corresponding contents.

The mode of raising transfer of 2WD is intended for movement on roads with a firm covering and provides maximum efficiency of fuel consumption.

Transfer of the lever to the provision of 4х4 PART-TIME provides inclusion of a full drive in a changeable mode when emergence on the road of snow drifts or ices demands increase of reliability of coupling with the road. The mode is raising and does not provide an increment of traction effort. It is not necessary to use a mode of 4х4 PART-TIME at movement on a dry paving. Inclusion of a mode can be made under way at any resolved speed of movement of the car - simply transfer a control lever a box from situation 2WD to the provision of 4х4 PART-TIME.

The mode of a full drive with fall of the transfer relation of 4LO joins in need of a temporary increment of traction effort of the car at movement on off road terrain with small speed.

It is not necessary to include a 4LO mode on roads with a good covering! To include a 4LO mode speed of the car it should be dumped to value of 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 mile/h), and transmission is transferred to neutral situation.


Do not try to make at all 4LO mode inclusion at speed of movement of the car over 3 ÷ 5 km/h (2 ÷ 3 miles/h)! It can lead to an exit of a transfer case out of operation.

Zadny Bridge with system of automatic redistribution of loading in TRAC-LOCK differential (an additional complete set)

The system provides automatic change-over of differential of the back bridge when coupling of one of back wheels with the road is lost and it starts to revolve. As soon as such situation arises, the differential automatically redistributes loading, providing the maximum torque to that wheel which has the best coupling with the road.

The TRAC-LOCK system is capable to bring special advantage at movement on a slippery paving. If on ice there are both back wheels, for ensuring the maximum coupling with the road will squeeze out slightly a gas pedal enough. When on a slippery surface there is only one of the back wheels, useful there will be an insignificant raising for very short time of the parking brake.

Principle of functioning of system of anti-blocking of brakes

"Kachaniye" a brake pedal during braking on the car equipped with ABS considerably reduces efficiency of functioning of the last and only increases a brake way! Simply squeeze out a pedal of a foot brake and hold its pressed to a full stop of the car.


Functioning of ABS can lead to emergence of hindrances of reproduction incorrectly connected radio equipment and mobile phones.

ABS substantially increases safety of management of the car when braking on a slippery and unreliable paving, and also at any sharp braking. The system is equipped with the separate processor module of management operating hydraulic pressure in a brake contour for the purpose of prevention of premature blocking of any of wheels. Probability of loss of driving owing to drift during sharp braking thus comes to naught to naught.

For a guarantee of serviceability of functioning of the module of management and adequacy of its teams to real conditions all wheels of the car and their tire should be one standard size and are pumped up properly.

For the speed about 13 km/h (8 miles/h) ABS makes low-high-speed self-testing. During carrying out this testing the pedal of a foot brake can pulse slightly that should not cause any concern.

The electric pump ABS turns on in time of performance by system of low-high-speed self-testing and also when ABS stops to carry out adjustment of hydraulic pressure. In operating time the pump publishes easy hum which also it is not necessary to be frightened.

At sharp braking there can be pulsations of a pedal of a foot brake and be distributed a clicking. It is not necessary to pay attention to these symptoms - they are a sign of serviceable functioning of ABS.

Loss of coupling with a paving at movement on a cross-country terrain can bring to a temporary suspension of functioning of ABS and to inclusion of a control lamp on the dashboard. Again to install system switch off and again include ignition.

Some councils by rules of driving of the all-wheel drive car

General information

For maximum efficiency of using brakes and an accelerator it is necessary to remember some moments:

  • Do not hold a foot on a brake pedal during movement is can bring to an overheat of brake mechanisms and, as a result to increase in a brake way and refusal of brake system.
  • Avoid long use of brakes for car control during descent under a bias is can lead to failure of brake mechanisms. It will be more correct to switch transmission to lower transfer, and on models from AT to resort to blocking of a mode of raising transfer (the About/D OFF button - see above).
  • During an engine warming up its single turns are usually a little overestimated, therefore at careless handling of a gas pedal during a start of motion driving wheels of the car can start to be turned. Special attentiveness should be shown at movement on the slippery road, during commission of maneuvers, and also at a car parking. Do not forget to include an all-wheel drive mode at deterioration of coupling of wheels with the road.
  • Try to observe always safe for specific road conditions speed of movement. Do not forget about education possibility between wheels of the car and a paving of a water pillow when crossing pools at great speed. It is safer to move to rainy weather with the included full drive.
  • After crossing of water barriers or departure from a car wash it is necessary to dry brake mechanisms by commission of several braking on small speed.

Movement on the route

Models of the Utility type differ from other passenger cars the considerable road gleam allowing them freely to overcome many meeting on a cross-country terrain of a barrier. High landing provides also the best review to the driver. It is worth to remember however that at such design the center of gravity of a vehicle is located much above than usual models. Such cars are not intended for passing of turns on high speeds. Try to avoid whenever possible sharp maneuvers and in advance reduce speed at approach of turns. Violation of these requirements can lead to loss of management and a car perevorachivaniye.

Movement on a cross-country terrain

General information

Only all-wheel drive models are intended for movement on off road terrain. Movement on a cross-country terrain in a 2WD mode is admissible only in case of sufficient durability and flatness of the soil. It is better to go to a distant trip two or more cars.


At movement on a cross-country terrain not to put harm to environment! Before leaving camp parking clean after itself all garbage.

Movement on off road terrain demands from the driver of some special skills therefore try to treat with all responsibility to studying stated below a material.

Preparation for congress from the route

The driver should be confident in a technical condition of the car. All knots and systems should work regularly, and the car bottom reliably is protected (with installation of all provided filters). Check, whether the spare wheel, whether in norm levels of all working liquids is pumped up properly. Make sure that were not going to drive to someone's private possession without special permission to that.

Order of loading of the car

The luggage laid above a back of a back seat, during sharp braking can break from the place and injure the driver or passengers of the car! For the same reason it is necessary to take care of reliable fastening of cargo. In order to avoid a car perevorachivaniye at movement on a cross-country terrain try to lower the center of its weight as it is possible below - put heavy subjects on a floor of a luggage compartment, and at all on the top luggage carrier. Try to shift cargo in a luggage compartment as it is possible further forward!

The heaviest subjects should be laid on a floor of a luggage compartment in its forward part. Try to shift cargo as it is possible further forward.

Take care of reliability of fixing of luggage.

Driving

At movement on off road terrain jolting and breakthroughs are capable to throw out the driver from the place that is fraught with management loss! In order to avoid it the driver and passengers should be reliably fastened by seat belts.

Remember that absence on a cross-country terrain of other vehicles at all does not allow the driver to get into the car in a state of intoxication. Even the slightest loss of coordination at movement on off road terrain can lead to fatal result!

Before going to a distant trip on a cross-country terrain it will be quite good to practise a little as driving on off road terrain demands some special skills.

Prepare for perception and the analysis of an extensive range of entering information. Eyes should look through constantly the territory ahead of the car in search of barriers and ways of their round. Ears should listen to the unusual sounds published by the engine, components of a suspension bracket and other knots and car systems. Hands, feet and a body should constantly демпфировать pushes and vibration.

The main pledge of a successful conclusion of a trip on off road terrain is correctness of a choice of safe speed of movement. The speed of movement less, the better the driver manages to consider obstacles and to choose roundabout ways. Jolting at the same time decreases and there is bigger time for decision-making and performance of necessary maneuvers.

At movement on a cross-country terrain the car can get to deep dirt, a grass, sand, snow, etc., to run into rubble and ice. The manner of driving and car braking in each of the listed cases should be corrected as appropriate.

On a way different invisible obstacles hidden in a grass, dirt or sand can come across. Not to run away the car the driver it should be constantly ready to arrival on such obstacles. Try to consider any external changes of a land relief and a nature of the soil. Strong hold a steering wheel.

At arrival on obstacles the car can come off wheels the earth. Even at a separation of one wheel it is rather easy to run away - try to supervise speed of movement and avoid sharp pushes.

Avoid sharp changes of speed and the movement direction.

Movement on the district with a hilly relief

For safe movement on the hilly district in cross-country conditions it is important to be able to estimate adequately a situation and to realize about vehicle possibilities. Some liftings cannot be overcome regardless of a car design. If lifting is too abrupt, at its capture the engine will simply decay. At movement down on too abrupt descent it is easy to run away. Attempt move along a slope can to lead to a car perevorachivaniye. It is better not to undertake attempts of overcoming of such obstacles without having been sure absolutely of their successful conclusion.

Approach to a height

At approach to a height it is necessary first of all to try to estimate adequately a steepness of its slope. Remember that to top the steepness of a slope can closer raise, what not always it is visible from below in view of vegetation existence.

First of all try to estimate uniformity of a steepness of a slope and durability of a surface of the soil on it. Consider an arrangement of obstacles. Be are ready to that behind the pass there can to be a break - it will be most correct to make a pedestrian rekognostsirovka.

Lifting

After the decision on need of overcoming of a height is accepted, be switched to lowering transfer and strongly undertake a wheel.

Begin lifting with smooth acceleration and try to hold speed of movement of a constant. In order to avoid pro-slipping of wheels try not to increase speed more than it is really necessary. Whenever possible try to move the most direct way to hill top - avoid changes of the direction of movement.

Movement along a slope dangerously, in view of the increased probability of a perevorachivaniye of the car!

As approaching top reduce speed of movement. For the notice of drivers of possible counter vehicles use a driving beam of headlights or a sound signal. In the afternoon days it is expedient to fix a flag on the car.

Departure on the pass with high speed is dangerous - on that party break can settle down or be other vehicle!

If in the course of lifting there is a situation when the engine глохнет or there are signs of that it just about will decay there is a certain list of that it is necessary to undertake and what it is not necessary to undertake. At first that should be made:

  • Stop the car, having squeezed out loops of a foot brake. Cock the parking brake.
  • If the engine did not decay yet, switch transmission to a reverse gear, release the parking brake and slowly move down from a slope a backing.
  • If the engine decayed, it is necessary for starting again. On former without releasing a brake (foot and lay), switch transmission in situation P (AT) or choose neutral transfer (RKPP) and start the engine. Now include a reverse and go down from a hill a backing.
  • At movement down a backing put the left hand on a steering wheel in situation at 12 o'clock that it was easier to supervise straightforwardness of operated wheels of the car. Turn of operated wheels aside increases chance of a perevorachivaniye of the car on a slope.

At all it is not necessary to undertake the following actions:

  • Do not try to prevent останов the engine by AT switching in the situation "N", or on models from RKPP - in this situation it will not work coupling squeezing, on the contrary, the car can roll down down, sharply speeding up that will lead to management loss. Instead make the actions described in instructions of the item. "If in the course of lifting...".
  • Do not try to make a turn when the engine of your car is close to останову during lifting uphill. If the slope is rather abrupt in order that the engine began глохнуть, its steepness will suffice and in order that the car turned over. It will be more correct to go down a backing as it is offered in the item. "If in the course of lifting...".

If after останова the engine attempt of descent of the car from a hill a backing does not crown success, it is necessary to stop, cock the parking brake, to transfer transmission to situation P (AT) or on the 1st transfer (RKPP) and to muffle the engine. Further it is necessary to wait for the help only. Leave the car and rise so that it could not run over you at refusal of brakes.

At all do not leave transmission in neutral situation at an exit from the car!

Remember that the models equipped with a transfer case of manual type at installation of its lever in neutral situation are not insured from a kacheniye even if transmission is included on transfer (RKPP) / established in situation P (AT). If are going to get out of the car, without fail cock the parking brake, establish transmission on transfer / transfer to situation P and choose one of operating modes of a transfer case.

Descent

Excessive use of brakes at movement downhill can lead to failure of brake mechanisms owing to an overheat and, as a result, to management loss! Avoid using without special need brakes, supervise speed the engine, having transferred transmission to the lowest transfer.

At movement down from a hill on a cross-country terrain besides try to estimate a slope steepness, character of a covering and existence of obstacles.

Having made of the decision on descent possibility, try to move directly down, having included the lowest transfer. thus there will be a car will be braked by the engine that partly will facilitate a task of the driver. Move slowly, trying not to run away.

Avoid changes of speed and the movement direction, try not to develop the car across a slope. Remember that the bias can be quite safe for movement on it strictly down and during too time sufficient for a perevorachivaniye of the car moving across it.

Do not move at all down nakaty, having switched AT in situation N, or with having squeezed out a pedal of coupling (RKPP). Thus the main loading is necessary on brake mechanisms which can easily fail as a result of an overheat.

If during descent occurs останов the engine that generally speaking it is improbable, stop the car, having squeezed out a pedal of a foot brake, then cock the lay. Switch transmission in situation P (AT) / to neutral transfer (RKPP) and, without releasing a brake, start the engine. Now include the lowest transfer, release brakes and continue movement. If to start the engine it is not possible, it is necessary to resort to assistance.

Movement across a slope

In the course of movement on a cross-country terrain it is almost impossible to avoid movings across a slope.

Whenever possible try to avoid such movings in view of repeated decrease in stability of the car and increase in loading at the wheels located below than level.

At a loose surface of a slope the car can easily start to slide on it sideways, will not turn over yet, упершись in firmer obstacle (a stone, a root, etc.).

Remember that arrival by the top wheels on a firm obstacle or hit bottom in the hidden hole can lead to a car perevorachivaniye also.

If the car started to slide off on a slope sideways, try to restore control for movement, having turned operated wheels down on descent. However it will be most correct not to allow such situations. Be not afraid to waste time on a pedestrian sortie for the purpose of a choice of an optimum route.

If the engine глохнет during movement across a slope, do not get out at all of it through the doors located at the bottom level. To examine a slope below a point of a site of your car, leave aside from a possible trajectory of its falling.

Movement on dirt, sand, snow or ice

Movement on the frozen reservoirs is dangerous in view of a high probability of hit in an ice-hole or on the ice weakened by a current!

At movement on dirt, a loose covering, deep snow or ice coupling of wheels with the road considerably decreases. Possibility of fast dispersal and braking is thus lost and maneuverability of the car decreases.

It will be most correct to move on such coverings on low gears - than is deeper dirt, especially low transfer it is necessary to choose. Avoid stops during movement on really deep to dirt, snow or sand - the troganiye from a place can appear impossible owing to pro-slipping.

At movement on drift sand of a wheel deeply roll in it that has appreciable impact on controllability of the car. It will be reasonable to weaken slightly pressure of a rating of tires is will facilitate a task and will increase coupling of wheels with the road.

Dense snow and ice in the maximum degree weaken coupling of wheels of the car with the road. On such coverings it is most easier to lose control of car management. If the ice surface in addition is humidified, acceleration of the car becomes almost impossible owing to the strongest pro-slipping of wheels and can lead to loss of management and car drift.

Crossing through water barriers

Fording through a current is dangerous in view of danger of loss of coupling of wheels with a bottom owing to soil washing away from under them a current!

First of all it is necessary to estimate depth of a crossing. If the water level reaches naves, hides bridges and an exhaust pipe, it is better to refuse a crossing at once.

On deep water it is best of all to move slowly that splashes and a running wave did not get on components of system of ignition. To останову the engine can give also immersion under water of a cut of an exhaust pipe then start of the engine becomes almost impossible. Do not forget also that moistening of frictional surfaces of brake mechanisms leads to temporary refusal of the last.

Arrival on poured оп in the form of a pool water at great speed can lead road surfaces to "emerging" of the car and management loss. Avoid such troubles.

Return from a cross-country terrain on the route

Clear the bottom of the car and components of its suspension bracket from stuck to them dirt and extraneous subjects. Garbage existence on a surface of components of system of production of the fulfilled gases is fraught with its ignition.

After movement on dirt and sand it is necessary to examine and carefully to clear frictional overlays of brake blocks/boots.

Examine components of a body, a suspension bracket and system of production of the fulfilled gases on existence of signs of damages. Check on existence of signs of leaks brake and fuel lines.

At frequent use of the car for movement on a cross-country terrain it is necessary to reduce some intervals between performance of procedures of routine maintenance (see. Head of Control and routine maintenance).